Saturday, February 8, 2020

Systems Development and Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Systems Development and Management - Essay Example As Sveiby advises the "difference between learning organization theory and KM in [my] interpretation of it is the fact that KM includes the outer world, the customer, and how to approach the customer, which learning organization theory does not" (p 2). The interview touches on another important point about KM called the transfer of tacit knowledge with respect to computers and Sveiby makes an important point that the "challenge is to create tools that help us be more creative, for instance, thinking tools, more educational tools like simulations" (p 2). This type of change in KM forms the tools for other large corporations to take note of how effectual KM is in within the framework of each organization. At IBM, technologies are being developed for "technologies that can be applied to knowledge management and to assess their actual or potential contribution to the basic processes of knowledge creation and sharing within organizations" (Marwick, 2001) and such look

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Find 2 peer reviewed articles that discuss hospital acquired Essay

Find 2 peer reviewed articles that discuss hospital acquired infections as a patient care problem that effects the financial man - Essay Example Such infections can also grow after the patient leaves the hospital, provided the patient spends time in incubation period at the time of discharge. Hygiene plays a crucial role in defeating HAIs and hand washing is the most effective tool in preventing them. According to a study a hospital audit revealed only 27% compliance of correct hand washing guidelines among nurses and 29% among physicians. If this situation can be improved there can be significant success in preventing HAIs. Analysis of the nurse’s role in relationship to this problem The role of nurses is as important as the doctors. Other than providing facilities for better hygiene in nurses educating them is such an important tool that it can hardly be ignored. The study reveals that through staff education and support in a hospital, hand hygiene compliance monitored in nurses increased from 48% to 64%. The same measurement was even more prominent in doctors as it showed an increase from 0% to 30%. The recommendati on given fits perfectly well with the frame of study. The Ministry of Health and Long Term Care should in work in conjunction with Local Health Integration Networks and make hand washing and hygiene compliance a part of its public reporting requirements. ... It is also recommended that Ministries educational materials should be developed specifically for nurses by keeping in mind their problems and priorities. Preventing Hospital-Acquired Infections By Lorri Downs Audience: Common People Summary Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections or HAIs still remains one of the most crucial issues in healthcare facilities. It is statistically proven that almost every health care facility is aware of the fact 40% of all HAIs are urinary tract infections. The problem itself has been discussed frequently but its evidence based solutions are rarely discussed. The CMS reimbursement changes did highlight the issue. Health care professionals dealt with the mandate that they either eliminate certain HAIs or lose Medicare reimbursement dollars. Hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing HAI however, there still isn’t 100% compliance worldwide. On average, the compliance is only around 40%. The biggest constraint that doctors and nurs es reportedly face is time and for this reason, they don’t perform correct antisepsis. The constraint is evident when nurses use soap and water to clean their hands. Time can be considerably reduced by using alcohol based hand washing solutions. A concentration of 80 percent ethyl alcohol or 75% isopropanol highly effective in hygiene and saves a lot of time compared with soap and water. With the hand sanitization solution provided the other contribution in regards with HAI is CAUTI infection. According to the study, in 30% to 50% of the patients that were inserted with a catheter tube, it was found that the catheter infection was not medically indicated. Hence caregivers should ask twice before recommending a catheter and more importantly the time for its

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Assessment and Learner Essay Example for Free

Assessment and Learner Essay This discussion paper is part of a series being published and disseminated by the Office of the Queensland School Curriculum Council. The purpose of this series is to encourage discussion on various issues concerning assessment and reporting. Teacher observation is one of several types of assessment techniques recommended by the Council in its Position and Guidelines on Assessment and Reporting for Years 1 to 10 and in its syllabus documents for the key learning areas. Other assessment techniques include consultation, focused analysis, peer assessment and self-assessment. The Position and Guidelines state that: ‘Observation involves teachers in observing students as they participate in planned activities. Teacher observation occurs continually as a natural part of the learning and teaching process and can be used to gather a broad range of information about students’ demonstrations of learning outcomes’ (p. 16). Teacher observation has been valued as an important assessment technique in the lower primary school, but has in the past received less attention in later year levels. Secondary schools especially have favoured formal testing and structured assessment tasks rather than in-situ observation, although there has been some movement towards in-situ observation in some subjects in recent years, even in the senior years. The Council’s Position and Guidelines and syllabus documents elevate teacher observation to a more prominent position in the range of assessment techniques that teachers might use. Other techniques have been identified as consultation and focused analysis as well as peer and self-assessment. Focused analysis includes more formal assessment procedures such as set tests and set tasks. However, these categories of assessment techniques are not necessarily distinct. For example, as this paper explains, observation may be employed in association with focused analysis, especially where what is observed is student performance on a set task. This discussion paper is not an official policy statement of the Council. Rather, it represents the views of the author, Dr Graham Maxwell, of the School of Education, The University of Queensland. As such, it offers a personal perspective on the issues. Dr Maxwell has been involved in research and consultation on assessment for many years in Australia, USA and UK, ranging over all sectors and levels of education. He has taught courses and conducted workshops on assessment for pre-service and in-service teachers for 30 years. He has also been involved in recent Council deliberations on assessment and reporting. The audience for this discussion paper is professional educators, especially schoolteachers and administrators who must deal with assessment and reporting practice in classrooms and schools. Such people already know a great deal about assessment and reporting theories and practices, and this discussion paper builds on that knowledge. The hope is that the discussion paper will serve as a basis for professional debate, development workshops and collaborative planning. iii The Office of the Council would be pleased to have your reactions to and comments on the discussion paper, as well as any examples of ways in which the discussion paper may have helped to clarify or resolve any theoretical or practical problems you are facing in the implementation of Council syllabuses. These reactions, comments and examples would assist the Office of the Council in deciding what further assistance it might be able to provide on these issues. JE Tunstall Director Queensland School Curriculum Council October 2001 iv CONTENTS Preface Introduction Arguments for valuing teacher observation Collection and recording of evidence Planning for teacher observation Factors affecting validity of teacher observations and what to do about them 1. Prejudgments and prejudices 2. Selective perception 3. Providing inadvertent clues 4. Inappropriate inference 5. Inconsistency Conclusion Some useful references on teacher observation iii 1 2 5 7 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 v Teacher Observation in Student Assessment INTRODUCTION Teacher observation is one of the assessment techniques recommended in the Position and Guidelines on Assessment and Reporting for Years 1 to 10 of the Queensland School Curriculum Council (the Council). For the implementation of Council syllabuses, assessment is seen as involving a variety of school-based (teacher-enacted) techniques for profiling student demonstrations of learning outcomes. Teacher observation, that is, observation of a student by a teacher, is one of those techniques. It can be used in conjunction with other techniques. 1 Teacher observation has been accepted readily in the past as a legitimate source of information for recording and reporting student demonstrations of learning outcomes in early childhood education. As the student progresses to later years of schooling, less and less attention typically is given to teacher observation and more and more attention typically is given to formal assessment procedures involving required tests and tasks taken under explicit constraints of context and time. However, teacher observation is capable of providing substantial information on student demonstration of learning outcomes at all levels of education. For teacher observation to contribute to valid judgments concerning student learning outcomes, evidence needs to be gathered and recorded systematically. Systematic gathering and recording of evidence requires preparation and foresight. This does not necessarily mean that all aspects of the process of observation need to be anticipated but that the approach taken is deliberate rather than happenstance. It is necessary, at least, to know in advance both what kinds of learning outcomes are anticipated and how evidence will be recorded. Adequate records are essential for good assessment. Teacher observation can be characterised as two types: incidental and planned. †¢ Incidental observation occurs during the ongoing (deliberate) activities of teaching and learning and the interactions between teacher and students. In other words, an unplanned opportunity emerges, in the context of classroom activities, where the teacher observes some aspect of individual student learning. Whether incidental observation can be used as a basis for formal assessment and reporting may depend on the records that are kept. Planned observation involves deliberate planning of an opportunity for the teacher to observe specific learning outcomes. This planned opportunity may occur in the context of regular classroom activities or may occur through the setting of an assessment task (such as a practical or performance activity). 2 †¢ 1 2 Other possibilities for collecting evidence by observation exist, including observations by another teacher, observations by other students, and student self-observation. This paper concentrates on teacher observation and does not consider these additional forms of observation. Ultimately, the teacher must judge the validity and relevance of all forms of evidence, so these alternative forms of evidence involve similar principles of assessment to those applicable to other forms of evidence, including teacher observation. ‘Classroom’ should be interpreted liberally. It may include settings outside the school, such as field excursions, public presentations and work experience. What matters is the presence of an assessor, typically the teacher, to observe and record the event. 1 Discussion Paper on Assessment and Reporting ARGUMENTS FOR VALUING TEACHER OBSERVATION Teacher observation is an important but underutilised assessment technique. It is sometimes argued that teachers are unable to make appropriate and dependable assessment judgments from observations of students in natural settings. The table (below) details some of the claims of this viewpoint, together with some relevant rebuttals. Handled carefully, teacher observations can provide important evidence for assessment judgments. In some cases, they provide the only way of obtaining evidence about particular learning outcomes, especially those involving practical techniques, performance activities, ‘real life’ projects and group work. Table 1: Arguments against teacher observations and rebuttals of those arguments Arguments against teacher observations Lack of representativeness Students may not demonstrate all relevant learning outcomes in natural settings. They may know or know how but the context may not prompt them to demonstrate this. Lack of observation Teachers may not observe the demonstration of a learning outcome when it occurs, either because their attention is els ewhere or because they fail to recognise it. Lack of control of influences The student can derive unintended cues and prompts from the setting, even from the teacher, and these can be unnoticed by the teacher. Student performance may then be misinterpreted. Lack of standardisation All students do not undertake the same tasks under the same conditions. Teacher judgments of student demonstrations of learning outcomes are therefore undependable. Lack of objectivity Teacher judgments are subjective and prone to inconsistencies. Too much is left to the discretion of the teacher. Possibility of stereotyping Subjective judgments allow the possibility of stereotyping of students in terms of other performances or characteristics. Possibility of bias Subjective judgments allow the possibility of conscious or unconscious bias for or against particular individuals or groups. Rebuttal of those arguments Learning outcomes that have not been demonstrated can be deliberately prompted. Assessment should be planned as well as incidental. Teachers can ensure that assessment is comprehensive. Over time, teachers have many opportunities for observation. It is not critical if particular opportunities for observation are missed. Some observation is deliberate and focused. No single occasion is sufficient for judging a student’s demonstration of learning outcomes. Multiple opportunities and a variety of contexts allow cross-checking the robustness of the student’s performance. Quality requirements for teacher judgments are ‘evidence-based’ and ‘defensible’. Tailoring and adaptation allow optimum student performance and holistic interpretation of the evidence (taking contextual factors into consideration). All assessment involves sequences of subjective decisions; mechanistic marking schemes reflect earlier design decisions. Procedures to strengthen and verify teacher judgments can be introduced. Stereotyping is not inevitable. Each assessment occasion can be approached as a fresh opportunity to test hypotheses derived from prior impressions. Conscious bias is unethical. Unconscious bias requires constant vigilance. It is difficult for bias to survive evidence-based justification to students and their parents (a form of accountability). 2 Teacher Observation in Student Assessment An important argument in support of teacher observation is that teachers have access to a rich and diverse range of evidence on student learning outcomes from observations of their students; and that the capability of teachers to collect and interpret this range of evidence should be respected. Otherwise, a rich source of evidence on student learning outcomes is being ignored. In any case, the issue is not whether teacher observations should be used — since they are necessarily used informally during teaching — but how teacher judgments can be strengthened and improved so that they can be used for formal purposes, especially for reporting and certification. A strong justification for using teacher observation in assessment is its capacity to enhance assessment validity. By extending the range of possible assessments, teacher observation allows assessment to be more: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ comprehensive — ensuring recognition of all desired learning outcomes, especially those not otherwise assessable than in classroom contexts; connected — situated within familiar learning contexts and closely related to curriculum frameworks, learning experiences and pedagogical planning; contextualised — sensitive to the effects of context on performance and deriving assessment evidence from a variety of situations and occasions; authentic — interesting, challenging, worthwhile and meaningful to students; holistic — emphasising relatedness and connections in learning and involving performance on complex wholes rather than separate components. All of these characteristics can be supported as important for high quality learning and assessment. Assessments with these characteristics have better representation of, clearer relevance to, and stronger consequences for desirable learning outcomes. Appropriate representation, relevance and consequences are often now recognised as the requirements of valid assessments. Past practice in assessment, particularly in secondary schools, has not accorded much recognition to teacher observation for formal purposes. Some people have argued that while teacher observation is necessarily a component of classroom teaching, a clear distinction should be made between informal and formal assessment. For example, some educators argue that assessment situations should not be confused with learning activities. 3 This draws too firm a distinction. Certainly, there should not be strong accountability for first attempts. Also, reports need to indicate the progress made by students at the time of reporting. However, a firm  distinction between assessment situations and learning activities stems from over3 This is argued by Caroline Gipps in her book, Beyond Testing: Towards a Theory of Educational Assessment, The Falmer Press, London, 1994. 3 Discussion Paper on Assessment and Reporting concern for comparison and ranking. Where the aim is to map the student’s profile of demonstrated learning outcomes, standardised comparison is not the issue. The question is simply what justifiable evidence is there for concluding that the student has demonstrated a particular learning outcome. This does not require students to be ‘tested’ under controlled — and artificial — conditions. An alternative vision is one where assessment becomes incidental to and indistinguishable from learning activities. This allows for the strongest connection between pedagogy and assessment and, as already argued, a strengthening of the quality of the learning and the validity of the assessment. It can be argued that unless there is a strong connection between pedagogy and assessment, the assessment will be disembodied and discriminatory, that is, unconnected to any means for improving student learning and privileging students with existing cultural capital. Such an approach focuses on the student’s best performance over time and values the progress they are making (similar to ‘personal best’ in athletics). Howard Gardner puts it this way: ‘Rather than being imposed â€Å"externally† at odd times during the year, assessment ought to become part of the natural learning environment. As much as possible it should occur â€Å"on the fly†, as part of an individual’s natural engagement in a learning situation. Initially, the assessment would have to be introduced explicitly; but after a while, much assessment would occur naturally on the part of student and teacher, with little need for explicit recognition or labelling on anyone’s part. †¦ As assessment gradually becomes part of the landscape, it no longer needs to be set off from the rest of classroom activity. As in a good apprenticeship, the teachers and the students are always assessing. There is also no need to â€Å"teach for the assessment† because the assessment is ubiquitous; indeed, the need for formal tests might atrophy altogether. ’ 4 4 ‘Assessment in context: The alternative to standardized testing’, in B. R. Gifford M. C. O’Connor (Eds), Changing assessments: Alternative views of aptitude, achievement and instruction (pp. 78119), London, Kluwer, 1992. 4 Teacher Observation in Student Assessment COLLECTION AND RECORDING OF EVIDENCE All assessment requires the collection and recording of evidence of student learning. For the implementation of Council syllabuses, it has been recommended that the evidence focus on the demonstration of learning outcomes. Evidence is documentation that records, illustrates or confirms student demonstrations of learning outcomes. Collection and recording of evidence is necessary for two reasons: accountability — justification of the assessment judgments; and verification — confirmation of the assessment judgments. Accountability and verification are key factors in assuring the quality of assessments. †¢ †¢ Accountability (justification) means being able to explain and defend assessment judgments to students, their parent(s) and other teachers. Verification (confirmation) means being able to revisit the foundations for assessment judgments — being able to check their completeness, relevance and veracity. Teacher observations are primarily directed at the observation of events, performances and activities. In some cases, an artefact may be produced as a consequence of the event, performance or activity. In other cases, no artefact is produced and the event, performance or process iself is the sole focus of attention. An artefact is something constructed by the t student, for example, a worksheet, a piece of writing, a design, a painting, a composition, a webpage — in other words, a product of some kind. Teacher observation is not primarily concerned with the artefact itself but with the way in which the artefact was produced, that is, with the process. 5 Evidence of process, whether or not there is a resultant artefact, may involve either direct record or written record. These two types of record have different characteristics. A direct record keeps a ‘trace’ of the event through an audio-recording, a video-recording or a sequence of photographs. The activity or event might be, for example, a speech, a dramatic presentation, a group activity or a practical task. The term ‘trace’ emphasises that the record is not the same as the event itself. At best, it allows some features of the event to be represented and recalled. Some features of the event may be lost, such as the ‘feel’ of the occasion or the ‘spark’ between presenter and audience. Some features of the event may be filtered or distorted by the medium of recording, for example, through positioning and handling of the 5 In some cases, a sequence of artefacts may be produced and these may provide a progressive record of stages of production. These could involve, for example, a sequence of written drafts, initial designs, trial compositions, or tentative frameworks. In this case, the artefacts indicate milestones of development towards the final product. It is important to keep the total sequence of artefacts, together with annotations about contextual factors, such as the way in which the student has made use of comments and suggestions, so that a complete interpretation of what the student has done can be made. 5 Discussion Paper on Assessment and Reporting recording device. It is important, therefore, to realise that such a record offers only partial representation of the event. Nevertheless, such ‘traces’ are better than having no record at all. A written record can take the form of an observation sheet or a logbook (diary of events). Observation sheets can be more or less structured: at one extreme they contain checklists of learning outcomes; at the other extreme they contain broad categories for writing on-the-spot comments or annotations; and in between these extremes is a combination of them both. 6 A logbook provides a record of critical incidents or key comments (sometimes referred to as an anecdotal record); for accuracy of recall, entries need to be made as soon after the event as possible. The student’s name and the date also need to be clearly recorded. A sequential collection of such records is sometimes called a ‘running record’. When keeping an observation sheet or a logbook, written entries can be (relatively) high inference or (relatively) low inference. ‘High inference’ means that a judgment or interpretation is made, whereas ‘low inference’ means that the specifics of the event are described (without any attempt to interpret what they signify). Thus, using a checklist of core learning outcomes would involve high inference, whereas providing a descriptive account of student performance without direct reference to core learning outcomes could involve low inference. In the latter case, judgments relating to the demonstration of learning outcomes can be delayed until a variety of evidence has been collected. The advantage of low inference observations is that they are more ‘objective’ or ‘transparent’ and can provide a ‘closer-to-the-event’ basis for later verification; the specifics of the event are more easily accessible. The advantage of high inference observations is greater ease and efficiency in record keeping, but the specifics of the event are not then retrievable from the record. It is possible to record both a judgment (high inference) and a description (low inference), thus retaining some of the benefits of each. Descriptive accounts can include written commentary on student performance under specific headings on an observation sheet; critical incidents or significant events recorded in a logbook; and key performance features recorded in a logbook. Critical incidents and significant events are particularly noteworthy instances of the demonstration of particular learning outcomes (or the lack of it), especially those observed for the first time or demonstrated in a particularly dramatic or unexpected way. Key performance features are salient features of an observed performance whether or not they are particularly ‘critical’, including evidence that strengthens or confirms early judgments relating to student demonstrations of learning outcomes. When an artefact, direct record or descriptive account is kept and placed in the student’s assessment portfolio, the artefact, direct record or descriptive account can be referred to again at a later time in order to retrieve the specifics of student performance. This allows assessment judgments to be delayed until a convenient time or allows assessment judgments to be 6. Rating scales are not mentioned here since arbitrary distinctions of quality are not part of the assessment position espoused by the Council. However, the sequences of core learning outcomes (arranged in levels along a developmental continuum) provide quasi-rating scales. It is a matter of convenience and style whether a sequence of core learning outcomes is characterised as a quasi-rating scale (showing where the student is positioned along the developmental continuum) or simply an expanded checklist (showing which core learning outcomes the student has demonstrated). 6 Teacher Observation in Student Assessment verified on a subsequent occasion, for example, for purposes of moderation. It is difficult to verify written records of judgments without an accompanying artefact, direct record or descriptive account as a reference point. 7 Table 2: Summary of types of teacher observation evidence Focus on product — keep artefact(s) Focus on activity — record process †¢ Direct record (‘trace’) o Audio-tape o Video-tape o Photographs Written record o Observation sheet  § Checklist (high inference)  § Description (low inference) o Logbook  § Description of critical incidents  § Description of key performance features †¢ PLANNING FOR TEACHER OBSERVATION Teacher observations cannot be useful without planning. Different types of evidence require different types of planning. An essential requirement for  all types of evidence is anticipating the kinds of learning outcomes that may be demonstrated. This is particularly important where observation is incidental and where judgments (rather than descriptions) are recorded. Council syllabuses provide a framework of learning outcomes that serve as the perceptual reference points for recognising the characteristics of student performance. The framework of learning outcomes makes available to the teacher concepts and language for recognising and describing what a student knows and can do. Learning the structure, language and concepts of the framework therefore is a key aspect of planning for teacher observation, as it is too for teaching. Incidental observation necessarily involves little additional planning, apart from the normal planning of classroom learning activities for students. Incidental observation is opportunistic, 7 Where there is no supporting evidential record for the judgment, verification of the judgment is strictly impossible. The record of judgment needs to be considered in the context of other evidence collected from different times and events. Where it corroborates other evidence, the judgment is strengthened. Where it contradicts other evidence, more evidence may be needed. Ultimately, the weight of evidence is what matters. ‘Other evidence’ could include the judgments of other observers, that is, other records of judgment of the same event. 7 Discussion Paper on Assessment and Reporting  capitalising on revelations of student learning during regular classroom learning activities. In this sense it cannot be planned. It is essentially unanticipated. It can only be recorded through descriptions in a logbook. Although there may sometimes be an artefact to provide corroboration for the teacher’s observation, any process details depend on teacher description. Incidental observation is therefore the weakest form of teacher observation and would preferably be used only as supplementary evidence to support other forms o evidence. f Relying on incidental observation alone would be unsatisfactory (see caveats below). Planned observation can involve planning  for ‘in situ’ observation (in learning situations) or planning for set assessment tasks. There is little to distinguish these two situations in practical terms. However, as assessment becomes more important, particularly in Years 8 to 10, students may need to know when they are being assessed, since they may otherwise choose not to show their actual capabilities. Absence of demonstration of learning outcomes might not indicate incapability of demonstrating those learning outcomes but lack of appropriate challenge or opportunity. Formal assessment occasions would appear to become more important in the secondary school than in the primary school, at least for the present. 8 For all planned observations, whether ‘in situ’ or set tasks, thought needs to be given to how the event and/or the observations will be recorded. Consideration needs to be given to whether a direct record will be kept and what form of observation record will be made. The validity of teacher observations is strengthened by preparing an observation sheet that allows systematic recording of observations and judgments. An observation sheet may include checklists of learning outcomes and/or categories for describing student activities and performances. Learning outcomes might be made more explicit by listing their elaborations, components or criteria, that is, by providing more detail on the characteristics of the desired learning outcome. The advantages of prepared observation sheets include: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ opportunity to share learning expectations with students in advance encouragement of student self-monitoring and self-assessment clarification of the desired learning outcomes to guide learning focus on the desired learning outcomes to guide teaching cuing of attention to the full range of relevant learning outcomes having available an explicit and standard recording format ease of recording of student performance characteristics structured means of providing feedback to students. 8 In the long term, taking up Howard Gardner’s vision (see footnote 4), a more natural approach to assessment would require that classrooms become more like normal work environments. This does not necessarily mean that the student (as the worker) is under constant surveillance but that there are  opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities in situations that really matter (but are preferably ‘authentic’ rather than ‘artificial’). The necessary shift in assessment practice to support this is from ‘one-off testing’ to progressive demonstration of ‘best (sustained) performance’. Reformed assessment practice would place more onus on the student to demonstrate the desired learning outcomes (and to indicate when they think they are doing so) together with specific ‘invitations’ to students to demonstrate their level of development in relation to sequences of learning outcomes of increasing complexity. 8 Teacher Observation in Student Assessment  Disadvantages of prepared observation sheets include: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ the need to allow for several levels of learning outcomes on a single sheet it can be difficult to anticipate all the learning outcomes that might appear it is possible that other serendipitous learning outcomes will be missed students’ learning may be constrained by listed learning outcomes. The disadvantages are outweighed by the advantages. They can be overcome, in any case, by careful design of the observation sheet, tailoring it to the current stage of student development, and allowing space for additional observations to be recorded. Observation sheets should be used as a tentative organising structure for recording teacher observations rather than a limiting framework for the actual observations. Space also needs to be provided on the observation sheet for including descriptive details of the context. These details need to include any characteristics of the setting or the occasion that could have influenced the student’s performance, either positively or negatively, and that might be relevant in making a judgment about whether the student has demonstrated particular learning outcomes. The details can be physical (e. g. , uncomfortable surroundings), psychological (e. g. , personal attributes in stressful situations) or social (e. g. , other events in the life of the school or the student). Through all of this, it must be remembered that any written record  of observations is necessarily selective. Only certain features of student performance are likely to be noticed and can be recorded. Therefore, having a clear understanding and ready access to the framework of expected learning outcomes is essential. One technique for reducing the cognitive demands of open observation is ‘spotlighting’. This means targeting specific learning outcomes (across several levels of a strand) on particular occasions. This has the added advantage of ensuring systematic coverage of all relevant learning outcomes. However, it should not be pursued so religiously that evidence of other learning outcomes outside the spotlighting target is ignored. 9 FACTORS AFFECTING VALIDITY OF TEACHER OBSERVATIONS AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT THEM Teacher observations will be valid to the extent that the evidence is appropriately recorded and interpreted, that is, whether: †¢ †¢ the recorded evidence accurately represents the observed student performance the interpretation (judgment) of this evidence is justifiable. Accurate recording requires transparent and unbiased perception of the student’s performance. Justifiable interpretation requires careful consideration of what the student’s performance signifies, in terms of learning outcomes, taking into consideration any factors 9 Margaret Forster and Geoff Masters discuss ‘spotlighting’ in Performances: Assessment resource kit, Camberwell, Victoria, Australian Council for Educational Research, 1996. 9 Discussion Paper on Assessment and Reporting that may have influenced the performance. The use of the term ‘justifiable’ here emphasises that there may not be a single unequivocal interpretation of the evidence but rather that the interpretation should withstand challenge as being reasonable and defensible. There also may be a requirement that the interpretation be consistent with the interpretations of other teachers. 10 The following discussion covers some factors that can affect the accuracy of the recorded evidence or the justifiability of the interpretation or both.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Minoans And Mycenaeans History Essay

The Minoans And Mycenaeans History Essay During the Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans and Minoans became two of the most powerful and culturally unique groups the world had ever seen. Because they resided so close to each other, they had an undeniable influence on each other and this resulted in the two groups sharing a lot of the same characteristics. Despite having a similar set of characteristics, both civilizations had several noticeable and distinct differences, most notably in the areas of architecture, arts, and languages. These differences can be understood best when examining the fact that Minoans were more trade and nature oriented, while the Mycenaeans focused more on war and strengthening their military. The Minoans and Mycenaean civilizations both resided in present-day Greece, while the Minoans based their civilization on the island of Crete, and the Mycenaeans on mainland Greece. The Minoans, who were known particularly for their extensive trade and dominance of the sea, existed from about 27th century B.C. to 14th century B.C. until the Mycenaeans defeated them and took over (Biers, 1980, 27). On the other hand, the Mycenaeans were more war and military oriented than the Minoans, as seen by their victory over the Minoans and their material culture, which will be looked at later. As far as language is concerned, Mycenaeans appeared to use a language called Linear B, which consisted of 87 different signs and several ideograms, or graphic symbols that represents an idea or concept. There has been a large amount of evidence found in the palaces of the Mycenaean civilization in the form of clay tablets. The Minoans used a system called Linear A, a mostly syllabic script that contains 75 signs and several ideograms; unfortunately, archaeologists still havent completely deciphered all of the symbols (Burkert, 1985, 20). We do know however, that Linear A tablets contained accounting transactions, which supports the idea that Minoans were more trade oriented (Biers, 1980, 26). Both civilizations were very complex and advanced with complex social hierarchies; this complexity is best seen by examining the archaeological remains of each civilizations architecture and different types of art pieces including paintings, sculptures, and pottery. Although the Minoan and Mycenaean styles of architecture were very similar, there were still several structural differences due to their trade and military backgrounds. Mycenaeans were especially talented at working with large blocks of stone (Biers, 1980, 67), a technique called megalithic architecture, which made it possible for Mycenaeans to construct enormous, heavily fortified walls that surrounded their palaces. This was in stark contrast to Minoan palaces as they probably felt that fortifications around palaces may have been superfluous due to their isolation location and strong navy. Minoans also used a post and lintel system, or in other words, verticals and horizontals (Biers, 1980, 29), as opposed to the Mycenaean megalithic structure. A distinct feature of the Mycenaean style of architecture is the relieving triangle above a lintel block, an architectural element best displayed on the Lion Gate at Mycenae (Preziosi and Hitchcock, 1999, 176). Both civilizations had palaces with intricate and detailed floor plans that covered a vast amount of land and had a central area upon which the rest of the palace would be built around. Typically, in Minoan palaces such as Knossos, the central area would be a large courtyard which was the focus of everyday life and served as the site for religious rituals and other ceremonial functions (Biers, 1980, 29). On the other hand, the central area of a Mycenaean palace was called a megaron. Typically, Mycenaean palaces such as Pylos, were highly decorated; this included the walls and the floor and even the hearth, which had spiral and flame patterns painted several times (Biers, 1980, 71). Another aspect of the Mycenaean culture that showed they had a military sense was their utilization of advanced hydraulic engineering. Not only did they have great fortification walls, but they had carefully maintained roads that served as an important network connector to their various major centers (Bier s, 1980, 74). While it is reasonable to conclude that both civilizations had impressive pieces of architectural work, the Mycenaeans tended to have a greater abundance of military architecture in its world. Based on an abundant amount of archaeological evidence, it is apparent that the Minoans were more interested in nature oriented art while Mycenaeans were more interested in warlike paintings. The Minoans loved to paint frescoes with bright, vibrant colors such as terra cotta red and used these colors to depict beautiful scenes of nature (Biers, 1980, 29). Minoan also liked to use a vivid red paint to paint the floor as a blanket of color and not just for frescoes (Hirsch, 1980, 453). There were also many enormous bull-vaulting scenes, present in Minoan palaces. In these paintings, the bulls were typically painted brown and white while the men were painted red and then women were painted white (Biers, 1980, 46). When examining Mycenaean art it is clear that they were strongly influenced by the Minoans because you can see several Minoan themes in their paintings and frescoes. An example of this is the procession fresco and the bull-vaulting scene (Biers, 1980, 80). Despite this obvious correlation, Mycenaean art usually had a lesser emphasis on nature, which was only used as a backdrop for scenes, and a greater emphasis on warlike scenes (Biers, 1980, 82). Both societies also made terra cotta figurines but Minoans features household goddesses with flaring skirts and raised hands (Biers, 1980, 55) while the Mycenaean figurines were larger in scale and were primarily categorized into three types: Phi, women with no arms, Psi, women whose arms made a crescent shape, and Tau (Biers, 1980, 89). While both cultures were masterful in painting sculptures and other forms of art, the Minoans concentrated more on being detailed and nature oriented while the Mycenaeans were more plain and focused more on warlike sculptures. Perhaps the archaeological find with the most abundant amount of evidence that backs up the idea that Minoans were more nature oriented than their counter part, the Mycenaeans, is pottery. Minoan pottery is considered to be far more decorative than that of the Mycenaeans and their pottery attained a very high standard in both fabric and decoration (Biers, 1980, 52). Since pottery was actually also used to determine chronology, Minoan pottery actually provided a foundation for dividing the different Minoan eras. Late Minoan IA style featured spirals with details added in white and floral motifs (Biers, 1980, 54), while Late Minoan IB style, the Marine style, featured several nature-like qualities such as the depictions of sea creatures, particularly octopus (Biers, 1980, 54). Unlike Minoan pottery, Mycenaean pottery was simple and dull in its decoration (Biers, 1980, 85). Mycenaean pottery was designed with a dull black-to-brown glaze while the Late Helladic IIIB pottery featured shap es such as a kylix, and the Late Helladic IIIC period featured simple linear patterns and warrior scenes (Biers, 1980, 85 and 86). The Mycenaeans and Minoans had very different tastes in pottery as the Mycenaeans went for a more simple, plain, and at times, warrior style, while the Minoans went for a more colorful, and nature like style. Like most material culture, the religion and burial practices of the Minoans and Mycenaeans shared many similarities and had many differences. Minoan religion featured several female goddesses, prompting Arthur Evans to claim that their religion was a Mother goddess-centered religion (Olsen, 1998, 382). Additionally, animals and the death and rebirth of vegetationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦serve as the basis of Minoan religion (Biers, 1980, 27). A big difference between Minoan and Mycenaean religious practices was that Mycenaean cult buildings were independent structures which avoided the Minoan practice of building multiple shrines within their settlement (Burkert, 1985, 89). Grave Circle A and Grave Circle B are two of the most significant shaft grave archaeological finds for pottery and metalwork that have ever taken place (Biers, 1980, 75). The typical burial method was internment in chamber tombs and, for the royal family, in tholos tombs (Biers, 1980, 76). It is quite evident that both civ ilizations did have particular burial practices and practiced religion, although in Mycenaean civilization burial practices took on a larger scale. There is no doubt that the similarities between the Minoans and Mycenaeans are extensive, mostly because of their close proximity that allowed the Minoans to influence the Mycenaeans so much. While they were very similar, they also had several fundamental differences, most notably the Minoans being more trade and nature oriented while the Mycenaeans were more warlike. These differences are best understood by analyzing the different archaeological, artistic, and language aspects because they tell a story about the development of two of the greatest ancient civilizations during the Bronze Age.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

herody Free Essays on Homers Odyssey - Heroic or Disloyal Men? :: Odyssey essays

The Men of The Odyssey: Heroic or Disloyal? In Homer’s The Iliad, Achilles’ shield is described in great depth. On one portion of the shield, there is fashioned a scene with a golden herd of straight-horn cattle. They are being led along a fruitful riverside by a group of four golden shepherds and nine hounds. Two lions approach the herd, and mutilate a mighty bull. The shepherds can do nothing but watch, as they dare not approach the predators. This scene is crucial in understanding the behavior of Odysseus’ men in the sequel to this epic, (The Iliad, p. 227). In Homer’s The Odyssey, Odysseus narrates a portion of the epic concerning his journeys and trials during his long quest home for Ithaca. Throughout these adventures, his men play an important role in determining the fate of the entire crew of his ship. At some points, he portrays them as being heroic, while at others, they seem barbaric in nature and disloyal to their captain. These qualities of his men, and certainly others, are best exemplified through the episodes involving the Cyclopes and the Cattle of the Sun God. Before comparing and contrasting the actions of the men during these two mini-stories, a good understanding of the inhabitants of the two lands is necessary. The Island of the Sun God, Helios, is referred to as "the world’s delight," as it provides habitation for this god’s limitless flocks of cattle. Conversely, the Island of the Cyclopes inhabits primitive one-eyed, half-man, and half-bestial beings, (p. 218). While Helios’ island is described as "noble," almost as golden as the sun itself, the land of the Cyclopes is illustrated as a land filled with wild vegetation, and neglected by its undemocratic and uncivilized people. This depiction of these people being poor gardeners coincides with previous evidence from this epic, and others, that this type of lifestyle being lived by the Cyclopes was looked down upon by the author, and by the gods, in particularly. The other land, therefore, is obviously blessed and considered to be holy to the gods. Soon after landing on the Cyclopes’ Island, Odysseus takes a team of his best men with him to explore the new wilderness. They then discover the cave of Polyphemos, your everyday, average, sheep-herding Cyclopes. Odysseus’ men suggest taking the vision-impaired beast’s cheese and flocks and making a run for it, but the "raider of cities" insists on awaiting his homecoming in an attempt to see the caveman and what he has to offer.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

English Comparative- Dorm Life Vs. Life At Home Essay -- essays resear

College Dorm Life Vs. Life at Home   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Last month in our country, thousands of eighteen year olds flocked and migrated to a location where they could finally escape the stress of parents, siblings and their very own house and neighborhood. For the majority of the students, the move was indeed a success, an enjoyment, and otherwise a great new place to call home. There are some teens however, who are finding the new life in college to be struggle, and for some, an unejoyable event. In this essay, I will compare and contrast the views and opinions on life in the dorm versus life back home.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To begin, I would like to state my own opinion on dorm life. I find that life at college is by far, better than life at home. Parents, jobs, and siblings are never a problem here for me, and I find it very relaxing. Tons of kids my age live within footsteps of me, and I find myself getting along quite well. No one is here to tell me what to do, where to go, where not to go, or anything like that. I don’t have to make my bed, or even match anymore. Its great! Personally, I find college dorm life better than life at home.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are many kids who agree with me. Students find that there are more people to associate with, and more parties to go to. There is never a curfew, and never parental guidance. Total independence is what makes life here so much easier. The pressure from parents urging studying is by...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Hospitality Management Essay

Reflecting from my management shift, restaurant manager has many different kinds of important tasks and responsibilities in the restaurant. Restaurant manager plays an important role in the hospitality and food and beverage department as they can motivate the staff and maintain the high quality service which will help the business run successfully. Manager can provide appropriate ambiance in the restaurant which will provide warm and comfortable environment for the customer. Waiter station and dividing sections of tables should be fully allocated before the start of service shift which starts 10:00AM. After that, checking staff’s five equipment (waiters friend, lighter, handkerchief, pen and note pad), and their grooming (hair, ironing uniform, socks, belt and name badge). In the first briefing time, restaurant manager has to explain required table-set up and finding any problem such as students who are absent. When I was restaurant manager, one waiter called in sick so I had to rearrange the table booking slots to make it fit 12 waiters instead of 13. This can make the service flow more efficiently. If I left the booking slots thee way they were, waiters would have needed to pick up tables in 10 minute gap. A manager should manage and check every time whether staff are doing the right thing. After food briefing, manager should check that all staff are familiar with the menu and kitchen abbreviations as well as the price for each dish. Thus, restaurant manager should lead their team smoothly and know all situation and happening in restaurant including kitchen as well. (Food & Beverage Work Book, Feb 2013) Before doing the restaurant manager shift, I had confidence in myself because I prepared the table time slot sheet, linen order and table and station allocation the night before my shift. But once the service started, unexpected accidents happened such as waiter calling in sick. Also, because it was Thursday and nearly towards assessment night for many people, most of the staff was very tense and unmotivated. Trying to motivate the staff to work faster and efficiently was uneasy at first but I still liked having the responsibility and doing important roles that are unlike to the normal waiting staff, I believed I learned a lot of new knowledge and management skills. I also can confidently say if I become restaurant manager again I would be better than before. Effective duty allocation Restaurant manager: Joanne Suh Host: Pearl Douglas Role: Prepare butter, Prepare silver service cutlery and waiter clothes, Make sure the menu is correct and printed, Welcome the guests arrival, Book reservation for lunch and dinner service for guests. Cashier: Lucy Payne Role: Allocate waiter dockets, record the food and beverage orders on computer for each table and prepare the bill for each table, total and fill up the cash-up sheet and record any alcohol docket received each night. When it is signed by the lecturer, put the money envelop to front office. Room service: Jay Lee Role: Collect the sick list from front office, Prepare tray for room service, take room service order, deliver the food to the rooms, collect the tray back once the food is finished (Usually after 1 hour) which will be placed on the corridor. Bar team leader: Olivia Ann Role: Prepare the mocktail and cocktail of the day, make sure bar, coffee station, water jug, wine service and waiting area and linens are set up and ready for service. Provide drink to order during service including hot beverage. Come early in the morning 6:30am to order butter and milk and other needed items and order linens and others that need time to recover the night before the shift. Bar assistant: Dana Button Role: Help the Bar Team Leader set up the bar, coffee station, waiting area, water jug, and wine service. Provide the drink to order during service. Listen and follow the bar team leader’s instructions. Barista : Make hot beverages when you receive the order from the guest. Prepare the coffee work station neatly and correctly before service shift starts. Help and follow the bar team leader’s instructions when there are no orders. (Usually start of the shift. ) Staff meal: Guy Sinclair, Lit Wang Role: Prepare Breakfast, Take staff meal orders for service and management team, Set up staff meal, Clean up Taranaki Restaurant after shift. Help in the La Vista Restaurant when the jobs are finished. Waiter: Chloe Wang, Abbey Bowater, Noriko Fuji, Shannon Rochford, Marlee Mclaughlan, Nhung Tran, Ginger(Shanshan) Yong, Cindy (Xinshi) Yang, Chris (Trung Toan) Le, James Pitisopa, Hayden Woodbury, Krill This is the list for all staffs that had been worked in my team. Absent : Savneet Singh 2. 2Explain whether you think the allocation of the duties and tasks were helpful or destructive for the team and give your reasons why. I prepared most of the jobs that I should do on my management shift but what I had missed out on was plan what the â€Å"staff† should be doing on their service shift. I had to plan out which person will be doing which task on the spot. This has resulted me giving people jobs that they are not the best at. For example giving the vacuum job to a weak female staff. Also as the staff were allocated jobs that they do not like, they refused to do the jobs I ordered them to do or made excuses to do them later. This has slowed down the cleaning time of service. But because we were already in our 8th week of operation, most of the staff were already capable of doing jobs themselves without being told to do them. We finished a little later than my expected time at lunch shift which was 2:30pm. We finished at 2:40pm. This was due to customers dining in for a long time. We had three tables of industry placement interviewers. Delegation 3. 1 Making decision For the making decision, when I organised table planning I gave three tables for most people and four tables for a couple of people due to absent waiter on the floor. There were some tables already set up from the last dinner shift so I tried to allocate one set up table for each waiter to make them prepare and set up tables quicker and fair. Also I allocated the staff meal waiters to help the floor waiters when they finished preparing for staff meal to speed up the process and we can open the restaurant on time. Explain whether you think this was effective. Think about the theory. What could be done differently? When I allocated the jobs I asked people in a polite way with a soft tone of voice so the staff do not get to tense about the jobs that they have to do. I tried to be fair for example if someone did a hard job such as vacuuming La vista, I made them do an easy job afterwards like taking menu papers out from the menu. I also thanked the staff and especially the staff members who worked harder than others to acknowledge them their work. Overall I think my theory has worked out better than ordering them harshly what to do as it was my first time being the restaurant manager and staff are not used to it they might think it too personal if I order them to do jobs in a harsh way. But I think giving more volume to my voice and seriousness at time to time would have made the staff actually listen and do the jobs I allocated them efficiently. 3. 3 Identify shift outcomes and tasks. Describe how you achieved the outcomes required in this role. It very nice outcome after shift because I went to talk around with all customers. They told me that service was very good there were only few complaints about the food taste which the service team cannot control. Overall cleaning up was a little slow for lunch but everyone picked themselves up and dinner shift flowed through a lot faster than lunch. The staff members worked hard for both service and cleaning even though many staff members were stressed about the assessment week coming up and tired. I thank all the staff members and I think my first time being the restaurant manager, I did exceptionally well. Managing conflict 4. 1 Was there any conflict or disagreement in your team? Yes, between me and my bar team leader. Because bar team leader is also a type of manager as well as they manage the bar, I should have treated the bar team leader more like a manager and different from the floor staff but instead I ordered the bar team leader to do some jobs in the bar and that had made the bar team leader unpleased as the bar team leader obviously knew what sort of jobs needed to be done. But because I am still the restaurant manager for that day, I believe I had my part and reason to say the things I have said to the bar team leader. I didn’t want to make too much of a big fuss about this matter as whether or not there are customers in the restaurant it is still a working environment and restaurant manager should behave and look professional at all times or else staff and customers will look down on both me and the bar team leader. If yes, what was done to resolve this conflict? If not, why not? I resolved this problem by pretending to not hear anything that the bar team leader said behind my back. Because I thought if the bar team leader realise that I heard our relationship will become awkward. There was also dinner shift left and I really didn’t want to make any big deal out of this matter so I just pretended I heard nothing. This was a good resolution because afterwards she worked really hard and was a great bar team leader which made the service run more smoothly which was good for everyone and the restaurant possible. But later I talked in the briefing that if the restaurant manager tell you to do something do not ignore them or refuse and treat the managers like a real manager in a work place. 4. 2 What are some other options for dealing with the same situation? I believe motivating the staff and complimenting when the staffs finish their jobs can make the staff more willing to work and follow my orders. More motivated staff can give happy energy vibe to the workplace which will be transferred to the customer which will give warmer ambiance in the restaurant. 4. 3 Would you do thing differently next time you need to work with a team? For the next time that I have to work in a team, I would try to improve myself on delegating staff. I will make sure that everything in the restaurant such as preparations and second plans for times when something goes wrong again so I have a backup plan which will make me panic less. Also next time I will plan the job allocations for cleaning and preparations before service to be more efficient with time management as a manager. 5. 1 Identify a challenge or problem that occurred during your management shift. The biggest challenge I had faced was I had one waiter absent and I had 13 slots on my booking sheet that was made and finished last dinner shift. Waiters are supposed to serve each table with 20 minute gap. This made me very busy until the last minute of service and waiters were confused as their time for booking was all changed. It also confused both the waiters on floor and the management team. 5. 2 What was your response to this challenge? After ii had found out that one waiter on floor will not show up for service, I fixed the booking sheet and made the time slot 12 instead of 13. I put tables of two people together and called rooms to move the tables to a later time to make sure each waiter received 20 minute gap between each table so they had enough time to manage their tables on time efficiently. I had to reallocate some tables and stations to distribute the absent waiter’s tables and informed the staff. 5. 3 Analyse whether your reaction/response was effective and identify what you would do differently (if anything). I think in terms with the time I had, my decision was the most effective decision that was possible and best for my staff as well. If I gave tables in 10 minute break the staff will be more stressed about their time management and make mistakes on their sequence of service and have delays which will also be unpleasing to the customers as well. If I could change one thing I would make extra booking sheets for 11 waiters and 12 waiters even though I have 13 just to make sure and be safe. 5. 4 Have you identified any skills where you need to improve? What skill do you need to improve? I think I need to improve on leadership skills as I am not good at giving people commands and orders. Asking nicely could result staff refusing to follow my request. Also leading the team well so the staff are not lost and can reply on the manger is the kind of skill I need to improve on as well. Learning about yourself 6. 2What were your strengths leading the team? Figuring out solutions and making the service run fast and efficient as well as making the staff feel comfortable is my strengths in terms of leading the team. Because I found my way through problems fast and prepared for the service well, the staff trusted me and had felt comfortable. Even with extra barriers I still managed to make service flow fast. 6. 3Have you identified any areas where you need to improve? What areas do you need to improve? I think I need to improve how to be a good leader because I don’t think I have that quality just yet when I was a restaurant manager, Also I want to improve my eight management skill such as leadership, flexibility, adaptability, inventory management, conflict resolution, ability to work under to pressure, ability to multi-task, and organization skill. To be a successful manager, I need to improve all of this skill and learn from the mistake that I had got to achieve in the future. 6. 4Identify what remedial strategies you will put in place to develop the areas that are identified above. The eight management skill: leadership, flexibility, adaptability, inventory management, conflict resolution, ability to work under pressure, ability to multi-task, and organization skill and comunication. Statistic data At lunch shift, we had 126 customers coming to dine and our total food revenue was $1,962 and total beverage revenue was $2194 Hence, our average food check is $15.6 per person. It means that we sold entree and main food more than one person, which is good but it is not so good. Our team needed upselling skills at this moment. Thus, Total revenue should be $ but we received money only $ which means we lost $. The reason why this happen was that students did not pay properly and just left without paying, but it is very serious problem in real world and somebody should be to blame. That would be restaurant manager. Hence, I think that the statistic data show us how much money we make and can find the problems such as money stolen or not.